Uponor is an international industrial Group providing building and municipal infrastructure solutions. The Group’s segment structure consists of the following three reporting segments: Building Solutions – Europe, Building Solutions – North America and Uponor Infra. Its segment business risks and profitability factors differ from each other with respect to the market and business environment as well as offering, services and customers. Group management, control and reporting structures are organised according to the business segments.
Uponor Group's parent company is Uponor Corporation, domiciled in Helsinki in the Republic of Finland. Its registered address is:
P.O. Box 37 (street address: Äyritie 20)
Tel. +358 (0)20 129 211, Fax +358 (0)20 129 2841
The Financial Statements will also be available on the company website at investors.uponor.com and can be ordered from Uponor Corporation at the above-mentioned address.
At its meeting of 12 February 2016, Uponor Corporation’s Board of Directors approved the publication of Financial statements 2015. According to the Finnish Limited Liability Companies Act, the shareholders have the opportunity to approve or reject the financial statements at the Annual General Meeting to be held after their publication. Furthermore, the Annual General Meeting can decide on the modification of the financial statements.
Basis of preparation
Uponor Group’s consolidated financial statements have been prepared in compliance with the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), including International Accounting Standards (IAS) and their SIC and IFRIC interpretations valid on 31 December 2015. In the Finnish Accounting Act and ordinances based on the provisions of the Act, IFRS refer to the standards and their interpretations adopted in accordance with the procedures as set in regulation (EC) No 1606/2002 of the European Parliament and of the European Council. The consolidated financial statements also include additional information required by the Finnish Accounting Act and the Limited Liability Companies Act. The consolidated financial statements are presented in millions of euros (M€) and are based on the historical cost convention, unless otherwise specified in the accounting principles section below.
Use of estimates
The preparation of consolidated financial statements under IFRS requires the use of estimates and assumptions affecting the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities on the date of the financial statements, as well as the reported amounts of income and expenses during the report period. Although these estimates are based on the management's best view of current events and actions, the actual results may ultimately differ from these estimates. In addition, judgement is required in the application of accounting policies.
The consolidated financial statements include the parent company, Uponor Corporation, and all companies in which the parent company holds more than half of the voting rights, either directly or through its subsidiaries. Subsidiaries include those companies in which Uponor Corporation has direct or indirect control of over 50 per cent of the voting rights or otherwise has power to govern the financial and operating policies, with the purpose of gaining financial benefit from their operations. Subsidiaries acquired or established during the year are included from the date the Group obtained control. Divested companies have been included up to their date of sale.
Intra-Group shareholdings are eliminated using the acquisition cost method. Accordingly, the assets and liabilities of an acquired company are measured at fair value on the date of acquisition. The excess of the acquisition cost over the fair value of the net assets has been recorded as goodwill. Based on the First-Time-Adoption of IFRS 1, any company acquisitions made prior to the IFRS transition date (1 January 2004) are not adjusted for IFRS, but book value according to Finnish Accounting Standards (FAS) is applied to goodwill amounts. Intra-Group transactions, receivables, liabilities, unrealised gains and dividends between Group companies are eliminated in the consolidated financial statements.
Associated companies are entities over which the Group has 20–50 per cent of the voting rights, or over which the Group otherwise exercises a major influence. Holdings in associated companies are included in the consolidated financial statements, using the equity method. Accordingly, the share of post-acquisition profits and losses of associated companies is recognised in the income statement, to the extent of the Group’s holding in the associated companies. When the Group’s share of losses of an associated company exceeds the carrying amount, it is reduced to nil and any recognition of further losses ceases, unless the Group has an obligation to fulfil the associated company’s obligations.
Foreign currency translations and exchange rate differences
Each company translates its foreign currency transactions into its own functional currency, using the rate of exchange prevailing on the transaction date. Outstanding monetary receivables and payables in foreign currencies are stated using the exchange rates on the balance sheet date. Exchange rate gains and losses on actual business operations are treated as sales adjustment items or adjustment items to materials and services. Exchange rate gains and losses on financial transactions are entered as exchange rate differences in financial income and expenses.
In the consolidated financial statements, the income statements of the Group’s foreign subsidiaries are converted into euros using the average exchange rates quoted for the reporting period. All balance sheet items are converted into euros using the exchange rates quoted on the reporting date. The resulting conversion difference and other conversion differences resulting from the conversion of subsidiaries’ equity are shown as a separate item under equity. In addition, in the consolidated financial statements, exchange rate differences in the loans granted by the parent company to foreign subsidiaries in replacement of their equity are treated as translation differences. Realised translation differences in relation to the divestment of subsidiaries and the redemption of material shares in subsidiaries are recognised as income or expenses in the consolidated statement of comprehensive income.
Non-current assets held for sale and discontinued operations
Non-current assets held for sale and assets related to discontinued operations are formed once the company, according to a single co-ordinated plan, decides to dispose of a separate significant business unit, whose net assets, liabilities and financial results can be separated operationally and for financial reporting purposes (cash generating unit). Non-current assets held for sale are shown separately in the consolidated balance sheet. Profit or loss from a discontinued operation and gains or losses on its disposal are shown separately in the consolidated statement of comprehensive income. Assets related to non-current assets held for sale and discontinued operations are assessed at book value or, if it is the lower of the two, at fair value. Depreciation from these assets has been discontinued upon the date of classifying assets as non-current assets held for sale and discontinued operations. The Group has no assets classified as non-current assets held for sale at the end of the financial or a comparable period.
Sales of products are recognised as income once the risks and benefits related to ownership of the sold products have been transferred to the buyer, according to the agreed delivery terms, and the Group no longer has possession of, or control over, the products. Sales of services are recognised as income once the service has been rendered. Net sales comprise the invoiced value of the sale of goods and services net of indirect taxes, sales rebates and exchange rate differences. Uponor uses percentage of completion method to recognise work-in-progress for long-term contracts in project business companies, when the outcome of the project can be estimated reliably. The percentage of completion is defined as the proportion of the individual project cost incurred to date from the total estimated project costs.
Research and development
Research costs are expensed as incurred and are included in the consolidated statement of comprehensive income in other operating expenses. Development costs are expensed as incurred, unless the criteria for capitalising these costs as assets are met. Product development costs are capitalised as intangible assets and are depreciated during the useful life of the asset, if future economic benefits are expected to flow to the entity and certain other criteria, such as the product’s technical feasibility and commercial usability, are confirmed. The Group does not have any such capitalised development costs in the balance sheet that would fulfil the criteria for capitalisation.
The Group’s pension schemes comply with each country’s local rules and regulations. Pensions are based on actuarial calculations or actual payments to insurance companies. The Group applies defined contribution and defined benefit pension plans.
Within the defined contribution plan, pension contributions are paid directly to insurance companies and, once the contributions have been paid, the Group has no further payment obligations. These contributions are recognised in the income statement for the accounting period during which such contributions are made.
For defined benefit pension plans, the liability is the present value of the defined benefit obligation on the balance sheet date less the fair value of plan assets. The pension obligation is defined using the projected unit credit method. The discount rate applied to calculating the present value of post-employment benefit obligations is determined by the market yields of long-term corporate bonds or government bonds. Costs resulting from the defined benefit pension plans are recognised as expenses for the remaining average period of employment.
Current service cost (benefit expense) and net interest cost on defined benefit obligation (net liability) are recognised in the income statement and presented under employee benefit costs.
Re-measurement items on defined benefit plan obligations and plan assets, including actuarial gains and losses and return on plan assets (excluding interest income), are immediately recognised through other comprehensive income and such balances are permanently excluded from the consolidated income statement.
Operating profit is an income statement item, which is calculated by deducting expenses related to operating activities from net sales.
Borrowing costs are recognised in the income statement as they incur. Direct transaction expenses due to loans, clearly linked to a specific loan, are included in the loan’s original cost on an accrual basis and recognised as interest expenses using the effective interest method. Interest costs on borrowings to finance the construction of assets are capitalised as part of the cost during the period required to prepare and complete the property for its intended use.
Income taxes in the consolidated statement of comprehensive income comprise taxes based on taxable income recognised for the period by each Group company on an accrual basis, according to local tax regulations, including tax adjustments from the previous periods and changes in deferred tax. Deferred tax assets or liabilities are calculated, using the liability method, on temporary differences arising between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their carrying amounts in the financial statements, using the tax rate approved on the balance sheet date. Deferred tax assets are recognised to the extent that it appears probable that future taxable profit will be available, against which temporary differences can be utilised.
Goodwill represents future economic benefits arising from assets that are not capable of being individually identified and separately recognised by the Group. Goodwill represents the excess of the cost of an acquisition over the fair value of the net assets of the acquired company on the date of acquisition. Goodwill is allocated to the business segments. Goodwill is not amortised, but is tested for impairment annually. Gains and losses on the disposal of a Group entity include any goodwill relating to the entity sold.
Other intangible assets
Other intangible assets include trademarks, patents, copyrights, capitalised development costs, software licences and customer relations. Intangible assets are recognised in the balance sheet at historical costs less accumulated depreciation, according to the expected useful life and any impairment losses.
Property, plant and equipment
Group companies’ property, plant and equipment are stated at historical cost less accumulated depreciation, according to the expected useful life and any impairment losses. Interest costs on borrowings to finance the construction of these assets are capitalised as part of the cost during the period required to prepare and complete the property for its intended use.
Ordinary repair and maintenance costs are charged to the income statement during the financial period in which they are incurred. The cost of major renovations is included in the asset’s carrying amount when it is probable that the Group will incur future economic benefits in excess of the originally assessed standard of performance of the existing asset.
Gains or losses on the disposal, divestment or removal from use of property, plant and equipment are based on the difference between the net gains and the balance sheet value. Gains are shown within other operating income and losses under other operating expenses.
Group companies’ intangible assets and property, plant and equipment are stated at historical cost less accumulated straight-line depreciation, according to their expected useful life and any impairment losses. Land is not depreciated, as it is deemed to have an indefinite life, but depreciation is otherwise based on estimated useful lives as follows:
|Buildings||20 – 40|
|Production machinery and equipment||8 – 12|
|Other machinery and equipment||3 – 15|
|Office and outlet furniture and fittings||5 – 10|
|Transport equipment||5 – 7|
|Intangible assets||3 – 10|
The residual value and useful life of assets are reviewed on each balance sheet date and, if necessary, adjusted to reflect any changes in expectations of financial value.
Any grants received for the acquisition of intangible or tangible assets are deducted from the asset’s acquisition cost and recorded on the income statement to reduce the asset’s depreciation. Other grants are recognised as income for the periods during which the related expenses are incurred. Such grants are shown as deductions from expenses related to the target of the grant.
The balance sheet values of assets are assessed for impairment on a regular basis. Should any indication of an impaired asset exist, the asset’s recoverable amount will be assessed. The asset’s recoverable amount is its net selling price less any selling expenses, or its value in use, whichever is higher. The value in use is determined by reference to the discounted future net cash flow expected from the asset. Discount rates correspond to the cash generating unit’s average return on investment before taxes. Impairment is measured at the level of cash generating units, which is the lowest level that is primarily independent of other units and whose cash flows can be distinguished from other cash flows.
Whenever the asset’s carrying amount exceeds its recoverable amount, it is impaired and the resulting impairment loss is recognised in the income statement. An impairment of property, plant and equipment and other intangible assets, excluding goodwill, will be reversed if, and only if, there has been a change in the estimates used to determine the asset’s recoverable amount since the last impairment loss was recognised. Impairment is not reversed over the balance sheet value that existed before the recognition of impairment losses in the previous financial periods. Any impairment loss on goodwill is not reversed.
Goodwill is assessed for impairment at least annually, or if any indication of impairment exists, more often.
Lease liabilities, which expose the Group to the risks and rewards inherent in holding such leased assets, are classified as finance leases. These are recognised as tangible assets on the balance sheet and measured at the lesser of the fair value of the leased property at the inception of the lease or the present value of the minimum lease payments. Similarly, lease obligations, from which financing expenses are deducted, are included in interest bearing liabilities. Financing interests are recognised in the consolidated statement of comprehensive income during the lease period. An asset acquired under finance lease is depreciated over its useful life or within the shorter lease term.
Leases, which expose the lessor to the risks and rewards inherent in holding such leases, are classified as other leases. These rents are recognised as expenses during the lease period.
The assets leased by the Group, where the lessee bears the risks and rewards inherent in holding such leases, are treated as finance leases and recognised as receivables on the balance sheet at their present value. The Group has no finance lease receivables.
Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or net realisable value, based on the FIFO principle. The net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less the costs of completion and sale. In addition to the cost of materials and direct labour, an appropriate proportion of production overheads is included in the inventory value of finished products and work in progress.
Provisions are recognised when the Group has a present legal or constructive obligation as a result of past events, if it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation or if the settlement of an obligation will cause a legal loss and a reliable estimate of the amount of obligation can be made. Provisions can include inter alia environmental provisions, warranty provisions, restructuring costs and onerous contracts. Changes in provisions are included in relevant expenses on the consolidated statement of comprehensive income. The amount of provisions is reviewed on every balance sheet date and the amounts are revised to correspond to the best estimate at that moment.
Contingent assets and liabilities
A contingent liability is a possible obligation that arises from past events and whose existence will be confirmed only by the occurrence of uncertain future events not wholly within the control of the entity. Such present obligation that probably does not require a settlement of a payment obligation or the amount of which cannot be reliably measured is also considered to be a contingent liability. Contingent liabilities are disclosed in the notes to the financial statements.
Cash and cash equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents include cash in hand, deposits held at bank and other short-term, highly liquid investments, whose maturity does not exceed three months. Cash and cash equivalents are carried in the balance sheet at cost. The bank account credit limit in use is recognised under current interest-bearing liabilities.
Financial assets are classified as follows: financial assets at fair value through profit and loss, held-to-maturity investments, loans and receivables, and available-for-sale financial assets. Sales and purchase of financial assets are recognised at their trading date.
Financial assets at fair value through profit and loss include financial assets held for trading and measured at fair value. Financial assets at fair value through profit and loss have been acquired principally for the purpose of generating a profit from short-term fluctuations in market prices. Derivative instruments, for which hedge accounting is not applied, are included in financial assets at fair value through profit and loss. Interest and currency derivatives, for which no hedge accounting is applied, are recognised in the balance sheet at historical cost and valued at fair value on each balance sheet date. Fair value is determined using market prices on the balance sheet date, or the present value of estimated future cash flows. Changes in the fair value of financial assets at fair value through profit and loss, and unrealised and realised gains and losses, are included in financial income and expenses in the period in which they occur. Financial assets at fair value through profit and loss are presented under the other current assets in the balance sheet.
Held-to-maturity investments are assets with a fixed maturity, which the enterprise has the positive intent and ability to hold to maturity. Held-to-maturity assets are measured at amortised cost using the effective interest rate method. The Group did not have any held-to-maturity investments during the financial period.
Loans and receivables are non-derivative assets with fixed or determinable payment dates that are not quoted in the active markets or held for trading purposes. Loan and receivables are measured at amortised cost. Accounts receivable are carried at expected fair value, which is the original invoice amount less the provision made for impairment of these receivables. A provision for impairment of accounts receivable is established when there is objective evidence that the Group will not be able to collect all amounts due according to the original terms of receivables. Significant financial difficulties of the debtor, the probable bankruptcy of the debtor or default in payments are considered as probable indicators of the impairment of accounts receivable. Impairment of a loan receivable is assessed with the same criteria as an impairment of accounts receivable.
Available-for-sale financial assets consist of holdings in listed and non-listed companies and investments. Available-for-sale assets are measured at fair value based on market prices on the balance sheet date, or using the net present value method of cash flows, or another revaluation model. If the fair value of a holding or investment cannot be measured reliably, it will be measured at cost. Changes in the fair value of available-for-sale assets are recognised in the fair value reserve under shareholders’ equity, taking tax consequences into account. Changes in the fair value will be re-entered from shareholders’ equity into the consolidated statement of comprehensive income when the asset is disposed of or has lost its value to the extent that an impairment loss must be recognised.
Financial liabilities at fair value through profit and loss are measured at their fair value. This group includes those derivatives for which hedge accounting is not applied and whose fair value is negative.
Other financial liabilities are initially measured at fair value and subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest rate method. Transaction costs are included in the original book value of financial liabilities. Other financial liabilities include non-current and current interest-bearing liabilities and accounts payable.
Derivative contracts and hedge accounting
Financial derivatives are used for hedging purposes and are initially recognised in the balance sheet at fair value and are subsequently re-measured at fair value on each reporting period’s balance sheet date. At the contract date derivatives are classified as either cash flow hedges, hedges of net investments in foreign entities or hedges that hedge accounting is not applied to. For derivatives that hedge accounting is not applied to the changes in fair value are recognised under financial items in the consolidated statement of comprehensive income. The fair values of derivatives are determined on the basis of publicly quoted market prices.
Cash flow hedging is applied to electricity derivatives and interest rate derivatives. Net investment hedging is applied to certain currency derivatives that hedge foreign currency risk in internal loans classified as net investments in foreign entities. Hedge programmes are documented according to the requirements of IAS 39, and the efficiency of hedge accounted derivatives is tested both at the inception of, and during, the hedge.
Fair value changes of derivatives, which are designated as cash flow hedges, are recognised in other comprehensive income in the hedge reserve to the extent that the hedge is effective. The spot price part of the fair value changes of currency derivatives designated as hedges of net investment in foreign entities, are recognised in other comprehensive income in the translation differences whereas the interest rate differential part of the fair value changes is recognised under financial items. Accumulated fair value changes in other comprehensive income are released into the consolidated statement of comprehensive income in the period during which the hedged cash flow affects the result, while electricity derivatives are recognised under cost of goods sold and interest rate derivatives under financial items.
The ineffective portion of the fair value change of cash flow hedges is recognised under cost of goods sold for electricity derivatives and under financial items for interest rate derivatives.
Share-based payments – Management incentive scheme
The costs relating to share-based payments are recorded in the income statement and the corresponding liability for share-based payments settled in cash is deferred. The recognised liability is measured at fair value on every balance sheet date. For equity-settled share-based payment transactions, an increase corresponding to the expensed amount is recorded in equity.
Treasury shares are presented in the financial statements as a reduction in shareholders’ equity. Treasury shares are taken into account in calculating key figures and ratios according to IAS 33.
Dividends proposed by the Board of Directors are not recognised in the financial statements until their proposal is approved by the shareholders in the Annual General Meeting.
Accounting policies requiring consideration by management and essential uncertainty factors associated with estimates
Estimates and assumptions regarding the future must be made during the preparation of the financial statements, and the outcome may differ from the estimates and assumptions. Furthermore, the application of accounting principles requires consideration.
Group management needs to make decisions regarding the selection and application of accounting principles. These judgements are in particular required in those cases in which the IFRS in force provide the opportunity to choose between various accounting, valuation or presentation methods.
The estimates made in connection with preparing the financial statements reflect the management’s best view at the time of the closing of the accounts. These estimates are affected by historical experience and assumptions regarding future developments, which are regarded as well-founded at the time of closing the accounts. On a regular basis, the Group monitors the realisation of these estimates and assumptions through internal and external information sources. Any changes in estimates and assumptions are recognised in the financial statements for the period during which such corrections are made, and all subsequent financial periods.
Estimates have been used in determining the size of items reported in the financial statements, including, among other things, the realisability of certain asset items, such as deferred tax assets and other receivables, the economic useful life of property, plant and equipment, provisions, pension liabilities and impairment on goodwill.
From the Group’s perspective, the most significant uncertainty factors are related to impairment testing on goodwill and the defined benefit-based pension obligations. The application of the related accounting policies requires the use of estimates and assumptions that also have a large impact. Uncertainty factors in connection with impairment testing on goodwill relate to the assumptions made on future cash flows and determining the discount rate. The Group’s weighted average capital cost rate (WACC), determined by reporting segment, is used as the discount rate in impairment tests. The book value of the defined benefit-based pension obligation is based on actuarial calculations, which in turn are based on the assumptions and estimates of a discount rate used for assessing plan assets and obligations at their current value, the expected rate of return on plan assets and developments in inflation, salary and wage levels.
Non-recurring items described in the Review by the Board of Directors, are exceptional transactions that are not related to normal business operations. The most common non-recurring items are capital gains and losses, inefficiencies in production related to plant closures, additional write-downs, or reversals of write-downs, expenses due to accidents and disasters, provisions for planned restructurings, environmental matters or penalties. The Group’s management exercises its discretion when taking decisions regarding the classification of non-recurring items.
New and amended IFRSs and interpretations adopted in 2015
The following new and revised IFRSs have been adopted in these consolidated financial statements. The application of these new and revised IFRSs has not had any material impact on the amounts reported for the current and prior years but may affect the accounting for future transactions and events.
- IFRIC 21 Levies (effective in the EU for annual periods beginning on or after 17 June 2014). The interpretation provides guidance on when to recognise a liability for a levy imposed by a government, both for levies that are accounted for in accordance with IAS 37 Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets and those where timing and amount of the levy is certain.
- Annual Improvements to IFRS 2011-2013 (effective in the EU for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2015). In the annual improvement process the non-urgent but necessary amendments to IFRS are collected and issued annually. The nature of the improvements depends on the standards, but they do not have material impact on the consolidated financial statements.
Application of new and revised IFRSs in issue but not yet effective
IASB has published the following new or revised standards which the Group has not yet adopted. The Group will adopt each standard as from the effective date, or if the effective date is other than the first day of the reporting period, from the beginning of the next reporting period after the effective date. The effects of these new and amended standards are under investigation, unless otherwise stated below.
- Amendments to IAS 19 Defined Benefit Plans: Employee Contributions (effective in the EU for annual periods beginning on or after 1 February 2015). The amendments to IAS 19 Employee Benefits clarify how an entity should account for contributions made by employees or third parties that are linked to services should be attributed to periods of service. In addition, it permits a practical expedient if the amount of the contributions is independent of the number of years of service, in that contributions, can, but are not required, be recognised as a reduction in the service cost in the period in which the related service is rendered. Retrospective application is required.
- Annual Improvements to IFRS 2010-2012 (effective in the EU for annual periods beginning on or after 1 February 2015). In the annual improvement process the non-urgent but necessary amendments to IFRS are collected and issued annually. The nature of the improvements depends on the standards, but they do not have material impact on the consolidated financial statements.
- IFRS 9 Financial Instruments (effective date for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2018). IFRS 9 is a several phase project which aims to replace IAS 39 Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement with a new standard. According to the classification and measurement part of IFRS 9, financial assets are classified and measured based on entity’s business model and the contractual cash flow characteristics of the financial asset. Classification and measurement of financial liabilities is mainly based on the current IAS 39 principles. The general hedge accounting model allows entities to reflect risk management activities in the financial statements more closely as it provides more opportunities to apply hedge accounting. In addition, the effectiveness test has been overhauled and replaced with the principle of “economic relationship”. The impairment model reflects expected credit losses, as opposed to incurred credit losses under IAS 39. It is no longer necessary for a credit event to have occurred before credit losses are recognised. Instead, entities always account for expected credit losses and changes in those expected credit losses at each reporting date to reflect changes in credit risk since initial recognition. The standard also introduces a number of new disclosure requirements about an entity’s risk management activities. The standard has not yet been endorsed by the EU.
- IFRS 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers (effective for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2018). IFRS 15 establishes a single comprehensive model for entities to use in accounting for revenue arising from contracts with customers. Under IFRS 15, a customer of an entity is a party that has contracted with the entity to obtain goods or services that are an output of the entity's ordinary activities in exchange for consideration. The standards core principle is that an entity should recognise revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. Extensive disclosures are required by the standard. Entities can choose to apply the Standard retrospectively or to use a modified transition approach, which is to apply the Standard retrospectively only to contracts that are not completed contracts at the date of initial application. The standard has not yet been endorsed by the EU. The Group does not expect to have any significant changes from adoption of this new standard.
- Amendments to IFRS 11 Accounting for Acquisitions of Interests in Joint Operations (effective in the EU for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2016). The amendments to IFRS 11 provide guidance on how to account for the acquisition of an interest in a joint operation in which the activities constitute a business as defined in IFRS 3 Business Combinations. The amendments are required to be applied prospectively.
- Amendments to IAS 16 and IAS 38 Clarification of Acceptable Methods of Depreciation and Amortisation (effective in the EU for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2016). The amendments to IAS 16 Property, Plant and Equipment prohibit entities from using a revenue-based depreciation method for items of property, plant and equipment. The amendments to IAS 38 Intangible Assets introduce a rebuttable presumption that revenue is not an appropriate basis for amortisation of an intangible asset. The amendments apply prospectively.
- Amendments to IAS 16 and IAS 41 Agriculture: Bearer Plants (effective in the EU for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2016). The amendments to IAS 16 Property, Plant and Equipment and IAS 41 Agriculture define a bearer plant and require biological assets that meet the definition of a bearer plant to be accounted for as property, plant and equipment in accordance with IAS 16, instead of IAS 41. The amendments apply retrospectively.
- Amendments to IAS 1 Disclosure Initiative issued in December 2014 (effective for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2016). The amendments were a response to comments that there were difficulties in applying the concept of materiality in practice as the wording of some of the requirements in IAS 1 Presentation of Financial Statements had in some cases been read to prevent the use of judgement. Specifically, an entity should not reduce the understandability of financial statements by obscuring material information with immaterial information or by aggregating material items that have different natures or functions. A specific disclosure required by an IFRS is not needed to be provided if the information is immaterial.
- Annual Improvements to IFRS 2012-2014 issued in September 2014 (effective in the EU for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2016). In the annual improvement process the non-urgent but necessary amendments to IFRS are collected and issued annually. The nature of the improvements depends on the standards, but they do not have material impact on the consolidated financial statements.
- Amendments to IAS 27 Equity Method in Separate Financial Statements issued in August 2014 (effective for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2016). The amendments focus on separate financial statements and allow the use of equity method in such statements, in addition to already existing alternatives of valuing investments in subsidiaries, joint ventures and associates either at cost or in accordance with IAS 39 Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement. The amendments are to be applied retrospectively.
- Amendments to IFRS 10, IFRS 12 and IAS 28 Investment Entities: Applying the Consolidation Exception (effective for annual period beginning on or after 1 January 2016). The amendments clarify that the exemption from preparing consolidated financial statements is available to a parent entity that is a subsidiary of an investment entity, even if the investment entity measures all its subsidiaries at fair value in accordance with IFRS 10 Consolidated Financial Statements. Consequential amendments have also been made to IAS 28 Investments in Associates and Joint Ventures to clarify that the exemption from applying equity method is also applicable to an investor in an associate or joint venture if that investor is a subsidiary of an investment entity that measures all its subsidiaries at fair value. The amendments have not yet been endorsed by the EU.
- IFRS 16 Leases issued in January 2016 (effective for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2019). IFRS 16 specifies the recognition, measurement, presentation and disclosure requirements on leases. The standard provides a single lessee accounting model, requiring lessees to recognise assets and liabilities for all leases unless the lease term is 12 months or less or the underlying asset has a low value. Lessors continue to classify leases as operating or finance, with IFRS 16’s approach to lessor accounting substantially unchanged from the current standards. The adoption of the new standard will have an impact on the way leases are presented by the Group. The standard has not yet been endorsed by the EU.
- Amendments to IAS 12 Income taxes: Recognition of Deferred Tax Assets for Unrealised Losses issued in January 2016 (effective for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2017). The amendments addresses recognition of deferred tax assets relating to unrealised losses arising from fair value changes in debt instruments classified as available for sale. The amendments have not yet been endorsed by the EU.